Obstacles of Submission in Holy Quran
In general, the afore-said obstacles in Quran return back to two internal and external factors and each of these two also consist of two set of factors which are as follows:
A) Moral vices and sensual attachments
B) Abomination and committing of sins
C) Satan of Jinns
D) Satan of men
Each of the above titles in its turn is possessing numerous meanings, which we shall refer to some of them and in each of the cases usually one verse will be sufficient and for some others references will be produced in the end.
A) Moral Vices:
The point which should be reminded about moral vices is that these vices takes shape by man's free-will and he is in a position to acquire them.
I) Carnal Desires and Extensive Love:
“Have you then considered him who takes his low desire for his god, and Allah has made him err having knowledge and has set a seal upon his ear and his heart and put a covering upon his eye. Who can then guide him after Allah? Will you not then be mindful?” (Holy Quran: Jaasiyeh:23, Similarly Qasas: 50, Qamar: 3, Mohamrnad: 14 and Baqarah: 87)
According to the above verse, deviation, the sealing of heart, ears and eyes and deprivation from guidance are the effects of man's evil free will and selection of carnal desires as objects of worship.
“And as to Samood, We showed them the right way.” (Holy Quran: Fusselat: 17)
“…And He shows you His signs so that you may understand. Then your hearts hardened after that, so that they were like rocks, rather worse in hardness.” (Holy Quran: Baqarah: 72, 73)
According to this verse, the created signs ('Ayaat-e-Takweeni') [which was discussed in the second stage] along with intellection opens the way for the guidance of man. But hard-heartedness and cruelty of a person becomes the cause of not allowing his intellect to attain anything. In such kind of verses and traditions the number of which is not less, intellection and reason have been propounded as the associate of the heart and mind. It should be seen what are the meanings of intellect from the viewpoint of revelation?
In the other heavenly books too much has been spoken about hard-heartedness and cruelty of man and the matter of heart becoming as hard as the stone has been discussed as the factor for turning away from truth and standing against God and His religion. For example in the journey of exodus from Torah it has come that: “Moosa and Haroun came to Firaun and said: “Jehovah the God of Israel has said to set free my nation so that they can observe a festival for me in the desert.” Firaun replied: “who is Jehovah that I should listen to his words and set free the Israelis. I do not know who is Jehovah and I shall not release the Israelis.” (Old Testament (Torah), London 1895 Journey of Exodus; chapter 5; Pg. 89)
Thereafter Prophet Moses displayed numerous miracles before Firaun which each of the time Firaun did not submit due to his heard-heartedness. The sentence “the heart of Firaun became hard” has been repeated for more than ten times in the journey of exodus. (Same reference; Pg. 92-95, 97-100, and 104)
III) Pride and Arrogance
“Surely (as for) those who dispute about the communications of Allah, without any authority that has come to them, there is naught in their breasts but (a desire) to become great” (Holy Quran: Ghafir: 56)
Thus the divine signs are sufficient for guidance. However a group have disputed and contended against it and this disputation is not due to ignorance of the reality but because of pride and haughtiness.
“As to those who disbelieved: What! were not my communications recited to you? But you were proud and you were a guilty people.” (Holy Quran: Jaasiyeh: 31; Similarly Baqarah: 17, A'araf: 36, 40, 76, Ahqaaf: 10, and Munafeqeen: 5)
“But when He gave them out of His grace, they became niggardly of it and they turned back and they withdrew so He made hypocrisy to follow as a consequence into their hearts.” (Holy Quran: Tauba: 76)
The effect of avarice is turning away from religion.
V) Seeking Loftiness of Position and Rank. About the denial of the divine signs by Pharoah and his followers, Quran says:
“And they denied them unjustly and proudly while their soul had been convinced of them; consider, then how was the end of the mischief-makers.” (Holy Quran: Naml: 14)
B) Committing Sings:
“…And none deny Our communications except the unjust” (Holy Quran: Ankabut: 49)
“Surely Allah does not guide the unjust people.” (Holy Quran: An'aam: 144. Similarly Tauba: 109, Baqarah: 86 and 258, Saff: 7, Qasas: 50, Ahqaaf: 10 and Naml: 14)
In the Bible it has come that: “So the reason that He (i.e. God) made Pharoah's heart hard was that he punished our nation and wished to do injustice upon them” (Gospel of Barnabas)
“And certainly We have revealed to you clear communications and none disbelieve in them except the transgressors.” (Holy Quran: Baqarah: 99)
In this verse, disbelief is confined to 'Fisq'. Perhaps the reason may be due to the wide meaning of 'Fisq', which includes in it every action, which is evil.
“Surely Allah does not guide the transgressing people” (Holy Quran: Muafequn: 6, Similarly, Baqarah: 26, Saff: 5, Tauba: 80)
III) Performing Indecent Acts: “Then evil was the end of those who did evil, because they rejected the communications of Allah.” (Holy Quran: Rum: 10)
This warning of Quran is very severe and grave that sins do not remain merely within its limits. Rather, because of the reciprocal relation and connection of behaviour with the human heart and soul, any indecent act will have a direct effect on man's heartly position before religion and he will start rejecting it.
IV) Lies and Falsehood
“Surely Allah does not guide him aright who is a liar, ungrateful.” (Holy Quran: Zumar: 3)
C& D) Satan of Jinn and Men
“And thus did we make for every prophet an enemy, the Shaitans from among men and jinn.” (Holy Quran: An'aam: 112)
“Like the Shaitan when he says to man: Disbelieve.” (Holy Quran: Hasher: 16)
“Surely (as for) those who return on their backs after that guidance has become manifest to them, the Shaitan as made it a light matter to them, and he gives them respite.” (Holy Quran: Mohammad: 25)
“And the Shaitan desires to lead them astray into a remote error.” (Holy Quran: Nisa: 60; Similarly An'aam: 43, 121. Ar'aaf: 27, Haj: 3 Naml: 24 and Ankabut: 38)
It has come in the Bible that: “Faith never errs because its foundation is God and His words… However [Satan] with all his efforts plans to nullify the faith”. (Gospel of Barnaba: Pg. 211, 212)
With regard to our topic of discussion, many traditions have been narrated which for the sake of brevity we shall refer to only some of them.
(*) Usul-e-Kafi; vol. 2; Pg. 289; Tradition no. 1)
(*) Usul-e-Kafi; tradition no. 2; vol. 2; Pg. 289)
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) said: “The pillars of disbelief are four: Greed in worldly things, fear from its decadence, discontent and anger.”
(*) Behar al-Anwar; vol. 72; Pg. 116; Tradition no. 15; Similarly Behar al-Anwar; vol. 72; chapter: 99 from Pg. 104 to 123. Traditions 1, 2, 16, 17, 19 and vol. 70; Pg. 53; tradition no. 15 and Pg. 55 tradition no. 24)
To Sum Up
Good and evil free will and moral virtues and vices are having many effects on man's life. Just as it was said in the first chapter of the stage of 'Submission', among its effects one can mention submission or non-submission before God and just as it will come in the second chapter, the result of such submission or non-submission will be enjoyment of 'spirit of faith' or its deprivation and consequently will amount to worship or disobedience. The outcome of submission and worship too (as was mentioned in the stage of 'reminding') is acquisition of 'special guidance', intensification of innate Ma'refat (gnosis) and a more lofty recognition of the Exalted God.
The effects of free will and the moral capacities which have not been discussed in length, is the kind of perception of innate Ma'refat and being reminded of it in the very first stage of guidance (general guidance). Of course, the essence of Ma'refat of God has been manifested to all and the divine argumentation will be completed upon all the human beings (just as it was mentioned in the stage of definition). However the spiritual condition of a person is not ineffective in the kind of manifestation of innate Ma'refat and being reminded of it. Perhaps some of the expressions of Quran like.
Could also be other than 'special guidance' encompassing and controlling the 'general guidance' and the type of perception of the first stage of guidance. As such, free will and morals will be having a fundamental role in recognition, beliefs, deeds and in reality, in all the aspects of man's life.